Making Cosmetics: Natural Ingredients You Need

Have you ever wanted to create natural cosmetics from the comfort of your home? Are you looking for natural ingredients, rather than synthetic ones? Today you will learn all about the ingredients for making natural cosmetics from scratch. In the previous blog post, we wrote about the basic equipment and tools you need to formulate cosmetics, and today we’re going to focus only on the basic ingredients.

Most beginners start formulating oil based formulations. Masks with oil extracts, waxes and essential oils were also the case when we began formulating natural cosmetics. How excited we were when we prepared our first skin balm with beeswax, which was so nourishing for the skin!

Today, we usually add water phase to our products. Water phase, oil phase? I hope we didn’t confuse you too much. Don’t worry you will learn the basic terms used by natural cosmetic formulators. You will also learn that formulating is not as hard as it may seem at first glance.

OIL PHASE

The oil phase consists of oil extracts, oils and wax. In order to make emulsions, we must add emulsifier. We always go for organic oils – preferably cold pressed and local. There are base and active oils. The base oils are always added to the oil phase and can be heated, but the active ones, due to their sensitivity to high temperatures, are added only to the cooled emulsion at the end.

Base oils and butters are e.g. sunflower oil, almond oil , argan oil, coconut butter, cocoa butter, shea butter, etc.

Oil extract are made by plant material. They are made by soaking a certain plant in oil for 3 to 3-4 weeks, stirring regularly, while the plant releases the active ingredients into the oil. The oil extract is always added to the cooled emulsion as it is sensitive to high temperatures.

Waxes – There are several types of waxes. The most common is beeswax, which is not suitable for vegans. A great alternative for vegans are floral waxes, such as jasmine or rose, which have wonderful scent.

Emulsifiers combine the aqueous and oil phases. Emulsifiers are divided into two groups: Emulsifiers that combine water in oil and emulsifiers that combine oil in water. O/W stands for oil-in-water and is classified as an emulsion. W/O stands for water-in-oil and is classified as an invert emulsion.

Oil in water means that the emulsion will contain more aqueous phase (light creams, body milk, face wash gel, etc.).

Water in oil means that the emulsion will contain more oil phase (balms, rich night creams, etc.)

WATER PHASE

A typical emulsion mixing process begins with heating the water phase and water soluble ingredients to 75‑80°C, depending on the procedure. This may include premixing a thickener such as xanthan gum with glycerin, which is then added to the water and other ingredients.

We add moisturizers to the water phase. Moisturizers are added to the water phase. Moisturizers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin texture and mask imperfections.

Glycerin is a humectant that prevents the loss of moisture from products so they don’t dry out as quickly. They can be incorporated into various homemade cosmetics such as soaps, shaving cream, toothpaste, creams and hair care cosmetics to provide smoothness and lubrication.

-Aloe vera gel moisturizes the skin and thickens the base of the product. Purchased gel contains a lot of artificial preservatives and additives, so I would not recommend it. If you have aloe vera plant, you can use it to make homemade masks that you use right away, as aloe vera gel expires in a short time.

Gums are used in cosmetics as an emulsifier, thickener and product stabilizer (xanthan gum, guar gum, etc.)

Hydrosoles are a by-product of distillation. They can be used to fragrance cosmetic products.

Hydrosoles are perfectly suited as a facial toner or after-shave. We can add them into homemade cosmetics, but if we do not have hydrosoles, we can use distilled water as a substitute.

Surfactants are used to make shampoos, remove impurities from the skin / scalp. They increase the stability and durability of the foam. Surfactants are the main component of a shampoo that sets it apart from other products. They may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, or dispersants.

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

Active ingredients are the heart of the cosmetic product. They have an active effect on the skin / scalp. They are always added to the cooled emulsion as they are very sensitive to high temperatures.

These include vitamins such as Vitamin E (antioxidant), vitamin C (an antioxidant that protects the skin from UV rays), provitamin B5 (for wound healing, damaged skin…) and many others vitamins.

Proteins. We add them to hair products and skin care products. They have a moisturizing effect on the skin and make the hair soft and shiny.

Active oils have special mode of action on the skin / hair due to their composition, We add them in smaller quantities. They are extremely rich in vitamins and minerals. Eg. neem oil and grape seed oil are used against acne, pimples. Rosehip oil, for example, has a regenerative effect, and we use it for night skin care. There are also kiwi, flaxseed, hemp, pomegranate oil, American cranberry oil and many others.

Active oils have a strong cell- generating, cell-activating and anti-inflammatory effect. Due to their special mode of action on the skin, they differ from base oils and should be used in much smaller quantities.

Lactic and citric acid are used in cosmetics to regulate pH. The normal pH of the skin on the face and body is between 4.7 and 5.75. They are added to the cold phase.

Essential oils are extracted of various parts of plants, usually by a distillation process. They are added to cosmetic products due to their therapeutic effect and fragrancy. Essential oils are obtained from fruits, flowers, conifers, leaves, resin, seeds, wood or roots. Which essential oil to add to your formulation? Depends on the therapeutic effect you want to achieve (regenerative, anti-inflammatory, etc.)

CO2 extracts are obtained by an innovative, special method. The fragrance of CO2 extracts are nicer than those of essential oils, there are not that many of them on the market at the moment, so they are more expensive.

A preservative is added to almost every cosmetic product, its function is to protect the product from the intrusion and development of microorganisms. We both usually use the organic preservative Cosgard, but there are many others on the market.

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OSNOVNE SESTAVINE ZA IZDELAVO NARAVNE KOZMETIKE

Ste si kdaj želeli ustvarjati naravno kozmetike kar doma? Potem berite naprej, ker boste danes izvedeli vse o sestavinah za izdelavo naravne kozmetike – od A do Ž. V prejšnji blog objavi sva pisali o osnovnih pripomočkih, ki jih potrebujete za pripravo kozmetičnih izdelkov, danes pa se bova osredotočili izključno na sestavine.

Večina začetnikov najprej pripravi mazila oz. izdelke, katerim je osnova oljna faza. Maske z oljnimi izvlečki, voski in kapljico eteričnega olja, so bile popotnica tudi pri najinem začetku formuliranja naravne kozmetike. Kako zelo sva bili navdušeni, ko sva si pripravili prvo mazilo za kožo iz čebeljega voska in olj, ki so se lepo povezali. Nastalo je mastno, a bogato mazilo.

Danes v izdelke dodajava tudi vodno fazo. Vodna faza, oljna faza? Upam, da vas nisva preveč zmedli. Danes boste izvedeli osnovne termine, ki jih uporabljamo formulatorji naravne kozmetike in se boste lahko prepričali, da formuliranje niti ni tako zahtevno, kot se morda zdi na prvi pogled.

OLJNA FAZA

Olja faza je sestavljena iz olj in/ali maceratov, masel, dodamo lahko tudi vosek in emulgator.

Olja morajo biti ekološka, najbolje je, če uporabimo hladno stiskana in če imamo to možnost, lokalna. Poznamo osnovna in aktivna olja. Osnovna olja vedno dodamo v oljno fazo in jih lahko segrevamo, aktivna pa zaradi občutljivosti na visoko teperaturo, dodamo v ohlajeno emulzijo šele na koncu. Osnovna olja in masla so npr. sončnično, mandljevo, arganovo, kokosovo, kakavovo, karitejevo, ipd.

Macerat izdelava kar sami in sicer tako, da določeno rastlino namakamo v olju 3 do 4 tedne, redno mešamo, medtem pa rastlina v olje sprosti zdravilne učinkovine. Macerat vedno dodamo v ohlajeno emulzijo, saj je občutljiv na visoke temperature.

Voski – Poznamo več vrst voskov. Najbolj poznan je čebelji vosek, ki pa ni primeren za vegane. Odlična alternativa za vegane so cvetni voski, denimo jasminov ali vrtnični, ki prijetno dišita.

Emulgatorji združijo vodno in oljno fazo. Emulgatorje delimo na dve skupini: Emulgatorji, ki združujejo vodo v olju in emulgatorje, ki združijo olje v vodi. Olje v vodi pomeni, da bo emulzija vsebovala več vodne faze (lahke kreme, mleko za telo, gel za umivanje obraza,…) Voda v olju pa pomeni, da bo emulzija vsebovala več oljne faze (mazila, bogate nočne kreme,…

VODNA FAZA

V vodno fazo dodajamo vlažilce, gumije, hidrolate ali tenzide (odvisno od tega, kateri produkt izdelujemo).

Glicerol je vlažilec, ki mehča kožo ter ji pomaga, da absorbira in zadržuje vlago. Glicerin naj bi srkal vlago iz kožnih celic in na ta način pomagal in ohranjal ravnotežje naravne vlažnosti kože.

Gel aloe vere poskrbi za vlaženje kože in gostoto izdelka. Kupljeni gel vsebuje veliko umetnih konzervansov in dodatkov, zato ga nebi priporočali. Če imate domačega, ga lahko uporabite za pripravo domačih mask, ki jih takoj uporabite, saj je gel aloe vere hitro pokvarljiv.

Gumiji ali zgoščevalci se v kozmetiki uporabljajo kot emulgator, zgoščevalec in stabilizator izdelkov. Pod gumije uvrščamo ksantan gumi, guarjev gumi, ipd. Le-ti poskrbijo, da je emulzija bolj gosta.

Hidrolati so stranski produkt, ki nastane pri destilaciji. Poskrbijo za lepši vonj emulzije, vsebujejo zelo malo terapevtskih učinkovin. Če hidrolata nimamo, lahko kot nadomestek uporabimo destilirano vodo.

Tenzidi se uporabljajo za izdelavo šamponov, poskrbijo za to, da se iz kože/lasišča odstranijo nečistoče, pospešujejo nastajanje pene in zvišajo stabilnost ter obstojnost pene. Tenzidi so glavna komponenta šampona, ki ga razlikuje od drugih kozmetičnih izdelkov.

AKTIVNE SESTAVINE

Aktivne sestavine so srce kozmetičnega izdelka. Aktivno učinkujejo na kožo in lasišče. Dodajajo se vedno v ohlajeno emulzijo, saj so zelo občutijiva na visoko temperature. Sem spadajo vitamini: Vitamin E (antioksidant), vitamin C (antioksidant, ki ščiti kožo pred UV žarki), provitamin B5 (za celjenje ran, poškodovano kožo…) in mnogi drugi.

Proteini. Poznamo denimo pšenične, ovsene, svilne protein, ipd. Dodajamo jih v izdelke za lase in v izdelke za nego kože. Na koži delujejo predvsem vlažilno, lase pa naredijo mehke in sijoče.

Aktivna olja so olja, ki zaradi svoje sestave aktivno vplivajo na kožo/lase. Dodajamo jih v manjših količinah. So izredno bogata z vitamini in minerali.  Na tržišču lahko dobimo veliko ponudbo. Npr. neemovo olje in olje grozdnih pešk se uporabljata proti aknam, mozoljem. Šipkovo olje npr.deluje regenerativno, midve ga uporabljava za nočno nego kože. Obstajajo pa še kivijevo, laneno, konopljino, olje granatnega jabolka, olje ameriške brusnice in številni drugi.

Mlečno in citronska kislino uporabljamo v kozmetičnih izdelkih za uravnavanje pH-ja. Normalen pH kože na obrazu in telesu je med 4,7 in 5,75. Dodaja se ju v hladno fazo.

Eterična olja so olja različnih delov rastlin, ki se ponavadi pridobivajo z postopkom destilacije. V kozmetične izdelke se dodajajo zaradi terapevtskega učinka in vonja. Pridobivamo jih iz sadežev, cvetov, iglavcev, listov, smole, semena, lesa ali korenine. Imajo različne terapevtske učinke (regenerativno, protivnetno, itd.)

CO2 izvlečki so pridobljeni z inovativno, drago metodo. Vonji CO2 izvlečkov so lepši, kot ga imajo eterična olja, na tržišču jih zaenkrat ni tako dosti, tako da so cenovno dražji.

Absoluti se večinoma uporabljajo v parfumeristiki.

Konzervans dodamo v skoraj vsak kozmetični izdelek, njegova funkcija je, da zaščiti izdelek  pred vdorom in razvojem mikroorganizmov. Midve ponavadi uporabljava ekološki konzervans Cosgard, na trgu so pa še številni drugi.

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